UPMC Clinical Center for Medical Decision Making

The UPMC Clinical Center for Medical Decision Making has developed a multifaceted educational curriculum to improve diagnostic reasoning. Components of the curriculum include:

  • A set of online educational modules to teach the principles of clinical reasoning. The modules are used by all faculty, residents, interns, and students who care for patients on the General Internal Medicine wards at Montefiore University Hospital, Shadyside Hospital, and the Oakland Veteran Administration Hospital
    –  UPMC – Clinical Reasoning Curriculum
  • A series of Clinical Reasoning Conferences held at each of the three teaching hospitals. An unknown case is presented to an expert discussant in a stepwise fashion. The discussant “thinks out loud” and explains they’re clinical reasoning as the case unfolds. A moderator helps to frame the discussion with special attention to the Diagnostic process
    –  Clinical Reasoning Conference Schedule 2021-2022
  • A series of on-line cases have been developed to emphasize interesting cases and explore the steps to a correct diagnosis. The cases take approximately 10-15 minutes and are available here: Pitt Puzzle Cases. If you would like to be added to the list to be notified when a new case is available please email:
  • In order to understand the reasoning process, it is vital to be familiar with the concept of cognitive bias. Well over one hundred cognitive biases have been described. There is significant overlap which sometimes leads to confusion. The Center proposes a classification of biases which helps to organize the principles and facilitates understanding